By : Arda
In the discussion in this forum, many questions discussed the relationship with the Messenger Waraqah that are Christian, also of the religion of the Messenger of Allah before the prophethood, the ancestors of the Messenger of Allah, etc.. There are good books written by: Martin Lings, based on classical sources.
This book reviews written by Bp. Rusdi Mathari. Hopefully useful reference to all of us
. Book Title: Muhammad: Life Stories Based on the Prophet Source Classic
Writer: Martin Lings
Publisher: Serambi, April 2007
Pages: 668 pages
Original title: Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, published by The Texs the Islamic Society, Cambridge,
United Kingdom 1991
Rusdi by Mathari
DAY after Mohamad Guntur Romli entitled Muhammad and Christian intellectuals loaded Kompas on Saturday 1 September 2007, a senior journalist, Bambang Bujono send short messages to my phone:
"It has been read in the papers Guntur Kompas." I understand, through the short message is, sir Bamboo, so I always ask my call-to provide feedback, minimal response to gold Bamboo private.
I have read the writing Guntur, and many suspect will be a reaction against excessive writing it. Perhaps because the predicate Guntur as activists Liberal Islam Network, perhaps also because the content is deemed not in accordance with the flow of "willingness" of the Islam that read them.
I suspected proven, at least in some mailing list I follow, such as Journalism, many participants possess the protests. Some states that Compass, which also contains the writing refutes Guntur. But there is no proposal from the mailing list that some participants who should be confute Guntur. Meanwhile, according to me, the protester that can only protest, not arguments in the form of writing, such as the Guntur.
For that I grew up in Pontypridd tradition by boarding NU, Muhammadiyah formally educated, and get a lot of reading from the magazine Al-Muslims by the Right, Atherton;
Guntur actual writing, including "ancient", direspon not need to be reactive, especially excessive.
Sources of reference on which to base the writing Guntur is the classic source, that is not much to read not mention the reference is avoided by most Islamic nations.
In some ways, writing is also taking some of Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliset Source (1991), written by Martin Lings, a British historian.
Lings is the book for Zia ul Haq, former President of Pakistan, was translated into English and published by Qomarudin by Serambi with the title Muhammad: Life Stories Based on the Prophet Source Classic.
This book by the Republika considered extraordinary and menyentuh.Lings who once worked as an assistant Script Care Books and orient the British Museum, reveal more details about the relationship intellectuals Christianity with Muhammad (Allah give mercy and welfare), although later Lings argument is considered quiet by Christianity.
Information about the prophethood Muhammad, according to Lings was already clear, both through the brochure holy book of (al Quran and the gospel) and classical sources: never stand alone.
He was influenced by ancestry, environment, and of course the intervention of God. Three factors that, directly and indirectly has put Muhammad as prophet. from lineage, the prophet is one of the descendants of Abraham through Ishmael. The last name called was born by the Black slaves from Egypt, Ibrahim married on the encouragement and approval of Sarah, Abraham's first wife.
Ismail own means "God has heard." By the year after the birth of Ishmael, Sarah also bear children of Abraham and Isaac were given names. At the request of Sarah to Abraham also, after the birth of Isaac, Hajar and Ismail asked to leave Canaan.
Genesis enshrine events experienced by the Hajar Ismail and through the Book of Genesis chapter 21. In paragraph 10, to reveal the Gospel, "Usirlah that women with children, because children will become slaves heirs together with a son, Isaac." In paragraph 17 mentioned, "What are you susahkan, Hajar? Do not be afraid because God has heard the children from places he lie. "In paragraph 20, Ismail message by the Genesis settlement in the desert and juluki as warm (the Bible, the Bible of Indonesia, Jakarta, 1990).
Ismail after the name never mentioned by Genesis except in Psalm 84 paragraph of Article 7, which is not directly praised Ismail and ibunya.Bakaah in Arabic is the Mecca.
And in Mecca Ismail down many tribes, the tribe terkuat is Fihr. Tribe is a direct descendant of Ishmael from the male point, and then known as the Quraysh tribe. The descendants of Ishmael from the point of women as the Quraish tribe Outskirts. Because of the strong influence, Quraish believed to be a holder of power of the Mecca: to serve the pilgrims who come to the world. Around four centuries after Christ, Qushay a man marry a woman named Quraishi Hulayl, descendants of Quraiy Outskirts. Marriage is produce four sons, one is given the name Abdul Manaf. Once married, Abdul Manaf had four sons; Abdu Shams, Hashim, Al-Muttalib, and Naufal.Keliru large that if there is a direct descendant of Muhammad Al-Muttalib. Muttalib in this great grandfather but not directly from the Koran, because the great grandfather of Muhammad Hashim is the brother directly Muthathalib. Besides power of Mecca, Hashim is to build two major caravan routes journey from Mecca: winter caravan to Yemen and the caravan summer to the northwest Arabia. In two seasons, the route is directed to the Palestinians and that France had become a Roman colony from Europe. One of the main discharge from the caravan summer is Yastrib (Medina). While the majority of tribes there are Arabs, many Jews who lived in Yastrib.
They control Oasis, and still run their own religion, pagan belief in which is almost by most Arab tribes. One Jewish tribe, which is located in the city is Khazraj.Hasyim marry Salmah, a woman from a tribe Khazraj effect on sukunya. Although from his wife, who have three other Hashim, son, no more famous than Syaibah, the son of Hashim from the marriage with Salmah. Unlike the other son Hashim living in Mecca, Syaibah settle in Yastrib with his mother. However flair to Syaibah heard in Mecca. When Hashim power to Mecca Muttalib, the younger, and about Muttalib levy Syaibah, his niece / nephew that, to stay in Mecca. Because Syaibah diboyong to Mecca using camel owned by Muttalib, the people in Mecca and call-manggil Syaibah call with Abd al-Muttalib, or "slave Muttalib." Since it is, Syaibah settled in Mecca and is known by the name Abdul Muttalib.
About The HanifDari Abdul Muttalib this, the history of Mecca and also the history of Muhammad, many later recorded by al Quran and also by history. He has thirteen boys and six girls results from people with several women.
Abd Allah, the father of Muhammad, is one of thirteen is the son of Abdul Muttalib. The names of the other son of Abdul Muttalib, which is also known Harits, Zubair, Hamzah, Abbas, Abu Lahab (the main enemy of Muhammad in the spread of Islam in Mecca), and Abu Talib (the father of Jafar and Ali).
There are interesting stories, when Abd Allah will be with the school Aminah from Banu Zuhra. In the journey toward the group, together with Abd Allah Abdul Muttalib must pass through a region inhabited by Banu Asad, one of the clan of the Quraysh. Banu, including one of the clan that still maintain the trust of Abraham in the middle of Quraish the pagan community. The names of the famous clan is Khadijah, Waraqah, and Qutaylah. At the time the two men see things in that area that Banu Asad, Qutaylah (sister Waraqah) stood at the door of his house. Qutaylah consider the second father-son, but the main attention given to Abd Allah, men aged 25 years.
Not all the new attention Qutaylah men through. But this time Abd Allah attract attention in particular. Indeed, in terms of smartness, Abd Allah, he is in the period. But it's not that interesting Qutaylah. Muhammad ibn Ishaq in the book Sabah messenger of God, the Prophet Life Wustendfeld edition, describes the current Qutaylah see the light in the face of Abd Allah, which seems to radiate from the outside world. Qutaylah and can not forbear to greet the two men, and to Abd Allah, he is plainly stated his desire: to Abd Allah chose as a wife. Get a "thank" the unsuspected, Abd Allah only able to answer that he must obey her father and marry Aminah.Sehari after marriage with Aminah Abd Allah, Abd Allah, again met with Qutaylah. Women are not greet Abd Allah, though sharp eyes stare. When asked by Abd Allah, what, Qutaylah answer "Lights on yesterday that there has been lost.
Today you can no longer meet the tooth aches. "Marriage is held in the year 569 CE and the year after it is known as the Year of the Elephant, the year when Muhammad Abd dilahirkan.Mengapa Qutaylah ask God to be her husband? Despite most of the Arab tribes such as Khuzaah, Hawazin, and also some of the Quraysh tribe is a pagan nation, a small part of their religion of Abraham maintain or at least closer to the religion.
Clan Hashim Abdul Muttalib, and is one of the tribe Qurays maintain that religion should not perform rituals to worship idols. Outside them, including the clan of Banu Asad uphold the religion of Abraham in a pure, far from the traditional attitudes. They are known as the folk nature upright or ortodok that idols in Mecca unclean and cause pollution. The term is used by nature upright, which vary with the Lings used by the Guntur.
Thunder nature upright pointing to Banu Hashim. Refusal to compromise on their idolatry and they often talk about overt religious Abraham, causing them to become community groups in the outskirts of Mecca. Abdul Muttalib know one of the nation that nature upright, Waraqah namely, that with his people, Banu Asad, embrace Christianity. This is a nation that believes that a prophet will come after Isa.Meskipun trust they do not spread widely, they are supported by one or two large flow of the church and also the east astrolog and the seer. On the Jews, because according to their line ended in the new knowledge-Messiah almost entirely agree that a prophet. Ecclesiastic and the monks Jewish predict that marks the coming of a prophet has arrived, and of course the prophet is a Jew, because they claim themselves as a nation of choice. The Christendom, including Waraqah doubting it.
They see no reason why it should be the last prophet is not Arabic. Arab nations in their eyes need more than a prophet rather than the Jews, who at least still follow the religion of Abraham and worship only one God and not worship idols. No one can align the Arab nation and the religion of their errors except a nabi.Ka 'heritage as a center of Mecca surrounded by 360 idols. Not including the amount of the idols small and large that is stored in each house in Mecca as a guard house. When they perform the activities of any kind, especially if you want to travel far, people will be facing Mecca and prostrate to idols in the future, invoke blessings and safety. It is also done by almost all Arab nations, including some Arab Christian community in the area of Najran in the south and in northern Yemen and Syria near the border.
Nestor and Bahirah Abdul Muttalib and his people, the power of the Quraish of Makkah and also the tribes of the pagan i not hate Christians. Christianity, which sometimes come to give homage to the maqam Ibrahim received by both the Quraish as they do to the guests the other. On one wall world, Christianity and even given the honor of the Virgin Mary to create paintings and his son, Christ-the picture clearly attract more attention because of the different images of others. Waraqah who can read and learn the Gospel and theology, able to see a promise of Christ. Promise that in general is considered by Christians to refer the Miracles of Pentecost.
Although the language is not clear signs (Cryptic), the miracle is implied in the Gospel of John Article 16 paragraph 13 "He will not say about himself, but all that he can hear, that he will say." As a brother, often discuss the content Waraqah Gospel Her younger sister with Qutaylah. Conversations about the arrival of a prophet and the arrival time will not be soon, very imprint on Qutaylah. That's why, when Abd Allah, Qutaylah ask the men menikahinya: because in the face of Abd Allah, as if there is light, as many told by the predecessor of tand-marked the birth of the prophet. History proves that the statement Qutaylah to Abd Allah, a day after a man is married to Aminah - light is no longer in the face-to become a reality, because the light (knowledge) is shifting to the Prophet Muhammad, her sons; which then become more terang.Kendati Lings is not concluded, but at this stage until it was from that lineage, is a descendant of Muhammad those options from the line Ishmael, Abraham's son. Thus, according to Lings, Abraham was not only the birth of two children from two wives, but two of the children of Abraham is also the birth of two nations, two great nations which means "The will of Heaven", the second nation to God not only promises worldly prosperity, spritiual also sublime. Two spiritual, the two religions, two of the world for the Lord; two circles and also because the two centers. That is a purified human choice is not over, however, has become the provisions of "Kingdom of Heaven." There are two central holy that includes Abraham: one in the region, in Canaan, and one in the west of Canaan, a desolate valley that is forty-day camel trip from Canaan, namely that Bakah then known as Mekah.Tentang how personal behavior and Muhammad the material, the handsome, polite, honest, intelligent, and so also discussed detailed by the Lings. In the context of knowledge and Muhammad Issue with Christian intellectuals, according to Lings not only happen in the years before the birth of the beginning of the prophet, Muhammad, but also go after adults, especially since the start relationship with Muhammad Kahdijah, Waraqah cousin.
In Mecca, Khadijah conglomerate that is beautiful. It deals with Muhammad first time when he asks Muhammad representatives do sell to buy France. Hazel agree, and the Kahdijah offer Maysarah, slave, to accompany Muhammad. Message by Muhammad ibn Sa'd in the book at the al mighty of god Thabaqat edition Leyden Dutch, trademark nomadic tribe Muhammad arrived in Bostra (in southern Syria), the city has a monastery and the priestly inhabited by Christians from time to time, the Bostra when a pastor died, he will be replaced by another, and this successor to inherit the entire monastery, including Manuscript Manuscript-old. One of the Manuscript in Bostra it contains about the prediction will come a prophet to the Arab nation.
In Bostra Muhammad shelter under a tree, not far from the house Nestor, a pastor Christian. Nestor ask to Maysarah, "Who is the person who shelter under the tree?" Maysarah and said, "He who Quraishi, from the family guard the Holy Land." "No, he is not a prophet," said Nestor Nestor.answer the same with that given by Bahira, before the Nestor-curate the same place, when at the age of nine years, Muhammad invited by the uncle Abu Talib trade to Syria. Compared with Nestor, Bahirah more "recognize" the prophet, because the food it provides meals to the nomadic tribe Bahirah Abu Talib even requesting release Muhammad tore his clothes only to see the back Muhammad.secret Namus details priestly Nestor told that by Maysarah to her madam, until after they are in Mecca .
Khadijah then repeat the story Maysarah to sepupunya, Waraqah. "Already I know that a prophet will be sent and the time has now arrived," said Muhammad Waraqah.Khadijah then apply to become her husband. As a dowry, Muhammad pay twenty-tail female camel that was delivered by Hamzah, uncle Mohammed. When married with Muhammad, Khadijah has turned the age of forty years while Muhammad was 25 years old. Up to the time before Muhammad received revelation knowledge, not history, which recounts the relationship with Muhammad Khadijah.Sejarah record, on a night of fear that Mohammed came to his wife Khadijah and ask for the Crusaders and menyelimutinya. Before that night, Muhammad is the man known as withdrawn and the offers (tahanmust) on the night in a cave in Mount Hira 'not far from Mecca. For Quraishi tahanmust not something foreign and become a traditional practice among the descendants of Ishmael.
Muhammad was married to Khadijah since the incident until that night, right in the month of Ramadan year 636 CE: Muhammad disergap fear extraordinary. When his fear a calm, Muhammad told what to see and listening Khadijah. Warqah and then get the story from Kahdijah said that the visit to Muhammad is Namus. In Greek Namus is the law of God or Spirit. "Holy, Holy God sake of the neighboring came to the Prophet Muhammad is the largest Namus also the first visit to Moses. Indeed he is the prophet for his people. Reassure him! "Said Waraqah that when it is old and blind, to Khadijah.Buku written by Lings, fully talked about Muhammad outside in, and that implied that implied.
Effect of chemical composition and narrative language of the Lings in this book to bring my heart seems to stop rattle. In addition to reveal the role of intellectuals Christendom, Lings also revealed that the wife of one of Rayhanah Muhammad is the Jews of Banu Nadhir. From the entire book, the Koran Lings seen placing a noose as praiseworthy and is entitled to be prophets. I suspect, in his writings in Guntur Kompas also the same opinion with the Lings, so there is no need to diresahkan from Guntur is writing.